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American Artist Illustrators of the 1800s


During the 1800s Publishers of books and magazines found that readers were more likely to buy their product if it were illustrated.   Periodicals that contained information on science, politics, religion, history and biographies added, as a form of entertainment, serialized novels and short stories.  The artists who illustrated the stories or designed the covers of those periodicals became as well known as the authors.  Charles Dana Gibson, Howard Pyle, Maxfield Parrish, and Frederic Remington were as well known as Mark Twain. 


Before the American Civil War British books and periodicals were the leading source of illustrated material.  America’s early illustrators—Howard Pyle, Edwin Abbey and A. B. Frost were all influenced by English artists.  American illustrators found themselves in great demand during the Civil War.  American readers were hungry for the current war news and pictures of military events and leaders.  Publications such as Harper’s Weekly and Frank Leslie’s Illustrated News sent artists and correspondents to the field to supply their readers with sketches and news on a weekly basis.


After the Civil War hundreds of new publications entered the field creating a major industry with over 5000 periodicals by 1900.  Adding to the growth of the industry were improvements in manufacturing and distribution and an increase in the public’s literacy rate and income.  All of these were the result of the Industrial Revolution.   Advertising became a major source of revenue for the periodicals and artists were needed to design and illustrated the ads. 


The publishing industry of the 19th century was the largest employer of American artists.  Books and periodicals were the major source of entertainment and writers and illustrators became the trend setters of the time.  They influenced the morals, values, and tastes that formed America’s culture.  The mid 1800s through the early 1900s was called the “Golden Age of Illustration.” 


Until 1880 all illustrations were reproduced by wood engraving.  An artist’s drawing was transferred to small blocks.  The wood around the artist’s lines was then cut or engraved away.  It was a slow and tedious process.  It could take an engraver 10 to 12 hours to finish a small 4 x 5 inch block.  The blocks were then fastened together to form a larger illustration.  A full page illustration made up of a composite of engraved blocks could take a week.   Engravers and artists often shared the credit for an illustration because the final print was only as good as the engraver’s craftsmanship.  Some engravers were also designers or illustrators themselves.  Harper’s claimed it cost as much as $500 to engrave a full page block. 


When photography became part of the printing process in the late 1800s the need for wood engravers declined dramatically.  Using the electrotype process a metal relief plate was created mechanically from a photographic image.  The advancement of the halftone process of photoengraving gave depth to an illustration by adding the middle (or half) tones between black and white.   By 1900 the halftone process advanced to allow the printing of color.  Though expensive, color printing was very popular with the public.


Harper’s and Leslie’s, competitors during the Civil War, continued to produce publications after the war.  Harper’s added the periodicals Harper’s Bazar and Harper’s Young People.  Other publishers also cashed in on the popularity of periodicals.  Atlantic Monthly, Putnam’s Monthly Magazine, Scribner’s, The Century, Ladies’ Home Journal, Saturday Evening Post, Collier’s, Cosmopolitan and McClure’s came on the scene.  There were also the humor magazines of Puck, Judge and Life.   Each of these publications relied heavily on American artists for illustrations, caricatures and portraits.


Edwin Austin Abbey, 1852–1911, was an American artist, illustrator, and painter.  He began at an early age as an illustrator, producing numerous illustrations and sketches for such magazines as Harper's Weekly and Scribner's Magazine.  Abbey was an illustrator with Harper's Weekly from 1871-1874.  He journeyed to England in 1878 and remained there for most of the rest of his life.  While in England he produced illustrations for many of Harpers’ serials.  His most famous paintings were of Shakespearean and Victorian subjects. (2531,2375,685)*


Joseph Alexander Adams, 1803-1880.  Adams was a self-taught engraver.  He began working in New York about 1824 and is known for woodcuts in Harper’s Illuminated Bible of 1846.  He engraved other books for Harper & Brothers including The Pilgrim’s Progress With a Life of John Bunyan by Robert Southey in 1837.  (457)*


Alfred T. Agate, 1812-1846.  Drawings Agate did with the United States Exploring Expedition or Wilkes Exploring Expedition were published in Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, 1845.  His illustrations also appeared in Thulia: A Tale of the Antarctic by J. C. Palmer, USN, 1843.


James Akin, 1773-1846.  His earliest works appeared in Drayton’s View of South Carolina, 1802, and in Dobson’s edition of Rees’ Encyclopedia.  Akin is also known for his caricatures and cartoons.  His woodcuts were published in Lessons For Children, Part II, James Wilson, 1803, History of the Heathen Gods and Heroes of Antiquity by William Sheldon, 1810 and Aesop’s Fables, M. Carey, 1812. 


May (Abba May) Alcott, 1840-1879.  She was the “Amy” of Little Women.  Louisa M. Alcott’s Little Women or, Meg, Jo, Beth and Amy, 1868, contains four illustrations by May Alcott. 


Alexander Anderson, 1775-1870.  He was a self-taught engraver and illustrator, one America’s earliest and most prolific.  He generally engraved the designs of others including those of Bewick, but he did do original designs and illustrations.  His work appeared in many books including Gulliver’s Travels Into Remote Nations of the World by Jonathan Swift, 1829 and Tales From Shakespeare…by Charles Lamb, 1832.  Over fifty of Anderson’s illustrations were published in Parley’s Magazine, 1933-1944.


John Andrew, 1815-1875.  A leading engraver and designer in Boston, he formed several partnerships before forming one with his son in the late 1800s. (4647)* 


Andrew Varick Stout Anthony, 1835-1906.  He was best known as an engraver but he did design as well.  He illustrated The Rose by James Russell Lowell, 1878, and The Skeleton in Armor, 1877 by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1876.


John James Audubon, 1785-1852, was an ornithologist, naturalist, and painter.  His goal was to document all American birds in their natural environment.  His major work, a color-plate book entitled The Birds of North America (1827–1839), is considered one of the finest ornithological works ever completed.  Audubon identified 25 new species and a number of new sub-species.  This work consists of 435 hand-colored, life-size prints of 497 bird species, made from engraved copper plates.  They were printed on sheets measuring about 39 by 26 inches.  A sequel, Ornithological Biographies was finished in 1839.  In 1842, he published an octavo edition of Birds of America, with 65 additional plates.  Audubon's final work, on mammals, was the Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America.  His son John Woodhouse Audubon drew most of the plates.  The work was completed by Audubon's sons and son-in-law and was published posthumously.  Although Audubon had no role in the organization that bears his name, there is a connection.  George Bird Grinnell, one of the founders of the early Audubon Society in the late 1800s, was tutored by Lucy Audubon, John James’s widow.  Knowing Audubon’s reputation, Grinnell chose his name as the inspiration for the organization’s earliest work to protect birds and their habitats.  Today, the name Audubon remains synonymous with birds and bird conservation the world over. (364,366,365)*


John Warner Barber, 1798-1885.  He was an engraver, author, editor and publisher.  His illustrations were published many books on history, geography and religion.  They included History and Antiquities of New Haven, The Child’s Book on the Soul, A Practical system of Modern Geography, Pictures of Bible History, Elements of General History, (597)* Historical Collections of The State of New York, and The Bible Looking Glass.


Charles A. Barry, 1830-1892.  Barry was a staff artist for Ballou’s Pictorial.  His illustrations appeared in books and magazines including, Newport Illustrated, The Green-Mountain Girls by Blythe White, Jr., and The Atlantic Almanac.


Frank Beard, (Thomas Francis Beard) 1842-1905.  From a family of artists, Frank Beard was 18 when Fort Sumter was attacked.  Because he had a severe hearing impairment, he memorized the questions the examiners would ask him so he could enlist.  They were not fooled but a captain who saw what happened told Frank he could join his company without pay.  He was given a uniform and musket and served as a private in the Seventh Ohio.  Frank sold sketches during his service to papers including Harper’s Weekly.   He actually made as much money from his sketches as he would have been paid as a private.  Beard is credited with producing the first war cartoon.  It showed General Scott as a bull-dog, a bone marked “Washington” and a hungry hound labeled “Jeff Davis”.  The cartoon was published by newspapers and sold as a lithograph.  After the war Beard moved to New York City and became a successful illustrator and political cartoonist. (7559)* He was a professor of fine arts at Syracuse University.


James Carter Beard, 1837-1913.  The brother of Frank Beard, he was an artist and illustrator.  He illustrated Hunting Trip of a Ranchman by Theodore Roosevelt.  His illustrations also appeared in Beyond the Mississippi, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81, The Riverside Magazine for Young People Vol. I. 1867, and Scribner’s Monthly. (523,7165)* He illustrated three books by Edward Eggleston, The Hoosier School-Master, The End of the World and The Mystery of Metropolisville.


(Carl J.) Joseph Becker, 1841-1910.  Born in Pennsylvania he moved to New York where he went to work as an errand boy for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.  In 1863, Leslie sent Becker to accompany the Union Army.  In addition to the battles of Gettysburg and Petersburg and President Lincoln’s address at the dedication of the military cemetery at Gettysburg, Becker recorded scenes of daily life in army camps as well as civilian events.  After the war he traveled in the American West recording the landscape of the Great Plains and the expansion of the railroads.  He sketched Chicago in the aftermath of the Great Fire.  One of his illustrations appeared in Beyond the Mississippi, 1869.  In 1875, he became manager of Leslie’s art department. (2239,2502,2806)*


Frank Henry Temple Bellew, 1828-1888.  Bellew was a cartoonist who did work for magazines and comic journals including Harper’s Weekly. (6387,6391,6360)* He also did some illustrations for books.  The Physiology of New York Boarding Houses, 1857, contains 22 illustrations signed with Bellew’s name, initials or his triangle.  Vanity Fair, Vol. I. Dec. 31, 1859, has many illustrations by Bellew.   The Art of Amusing by Frank Bellew, 1866 has nearly 150 of his illustrations and Punchinello, 1870, has 68 Bellew illustrations. 


Albert F. Bellows, 1829-1883.  Known for his landscape paintings, his illustrations did appear in books.  Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon Gent, 1864, Ballads, Lyrics and Hymns by Alice Cary, 1866, Festival of Song, 1866, The Atlantic Almanac, The Sunnyside Book, 1871 and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879 all contain illustrations by Bellows. (8023)*


Edmund Birkhead Bensell, 1842-1894.  He was an illustrator and painter.  He worked for Harper’s, Scribner’s and Lippincott.  Illustrations by Bensell were published in Our Young Folks Magazine, The Riverside Magazine for Young People, and Punchinello.  His ink drawings illustrated Charles F. Haseltine’s edition of Shakespeare and Frank Stockton’s first book, Ting-A-Ling, and A Century After, Philadelphia, 1875. (4392,901)*   


Eugene Benson, 1839-1908.  As a young artist working for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated, he willingly went to the front during the Civil War to record battles and events.  After the war Benson became a known writer, painter, and critic.


Albert Berghaus was a lithographer, engraver and illustrator.  He was employed by Frank Leslie’s Illustrated from the late 1850s through the 1880s.   Berghaus’ illustrations included the execution of John Brown, the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and the Battle of Gettysburg.  He researched and reconstructed the events leading to Lincoln’s death.  After the Civil War, he was sent West by the paper and during the 1870s collaborated with Frederic Remington.  (2293,2030,2246)*


Hammatt Billings, 1818-1874.  Billings was an engraver and architect.  He illustrated many books including the first edition of Uncle’s Toms Cabin, 1852 and 1853, Chimes, Rhymes and Jingles or Mother Goose’s Songs, 1845, The Ducks and the Frogs, A Tale of the Bogs, 1849, A Wonder-Book For Girls and Boys by Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1852, and Tanglewood Tales For Boys and Girls, by Hawthorne, 1853.


Reginald Birch, (1856-1943).  Reginald Birch started his career as a magazine illustrator.  His works appeared in St. Nicholas, Century, Harper’s Life and The Youth’s Companion. (5164,587)* He is probably best known for his drawings for Frances Hodgson Burnett’s 1886 novel Little Lord Fauntleroy.


Karl Bodmer, 1809–1893, was a Swiss painter of the American West.  He accompanied German explorer Prince Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied from 1832 through 1834 on his Missouri River expedition, retracing the 1805 journey of Lewis and Clark.  He recorded images of cities, rivers, towns and people, including many images of Native Americans, some of whom George Catlin had painted just months before.  Bodmer was the last artist able to paint the Mandan Indians in North Dakota before the fatal 1837 smallpox epidemic that nearly obliterated the tribe.  Bodmer returned to Europe with Maximilian and in Paris he had many scenes from the expedition (81 in total) reproduced as aquatints. The Prince had these images incorporated into his book, Maximilian Prince of Wied's Travels in the Interior of North America, which was published in London in 1839. (1057,4044,4048,1061)*


Charles E. H. Bonwill.  Between 1861 and 1865, Bonwill worked as a special artist for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper sketching scenes of the Civil War of which 87 were published.  His sketches included the war in Virginia, Maryland, Louisiana and North Carolina.  After the war, he traveled to Canada, and his drawings of Quebec and Ottawa were published in Picturesque Canada in 1882. (6459)*


Abel Bowen, 1790-1850.  Bowen was a self-taught wood engraver and one of first to make a business of engraving in Boston.  He also designed and taught the art of engraving to many pupils including Hartwell, Croome, Billings, and Greenough.   His illustrations and engravings are included in The Farmer’s Almanack, A Gazetteer of the State of New Hampshire, 1823, The Historical Reader, 1827, Original Poems for Infant Minds, 1827, Bowen’s Picture of Boston, 1829, A Geography of Boston, 1830, The Young Lady’s Book, 1830, Parley’s Magazine and The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge.


Theodore C. Boyd.  Boyd was and engraver and illustrator working in New York City in the mid to late 1800s.  His illustrations appeared in A Christmas Carol or The Year of our Lord MDCCCXLVII by Dana, 1847, The Cabin Boy’s Story, 1854, and A Visit from St. Nicholas by Moore, 1848.


Joseph H. Brightly, 1818-?  Brightly was a Philadelphia wood engraver and designer.  His engravings appeared in The Hunter-Naturalist by Webber, 1851, Wild Scenes and Wild Hunters of the World, 1852, Philadelphia as it is, in 1852, by Smith and The Pictorial Sketch Book of Pennsylvania, 1852.


George Loring Brown, 1814-1889.  An American Hudson River School Painter, his engravings appeared in Parley’s Magazine, The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge, A System of Natural History, 1834, The Family Magazine, Peter Parley’s Farewell, Robert Merry’s Museum and A Pictorial Geography of The World, 1847.


John Appleton Brown, 1844-1902.  Best known for his paintings, illustrations of his work appeared in Landscape In American Poetry by Larcom, 1879 and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879.


John G. Brown, 1831-1913.  Born in England, Brown worked in the National Academy of Design in New York in 1853.  His illustrations appeared in Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, 1864, Ballads, Lyrics and Hymns by Cary, 1866 and The Atlantic Almanac. 


Nathan Brown.  He worked in Boston.  His illustrations appeared in The Captive in Patagonia, 1853, Little Blossom’s Reward, by Hare, 1854 and Life and Sayings of Mrs. Partington and Others of the Family, 1854.


Samuel E. Brown, d. 1860.  A wood engraver and designer, he worked in Boston.  His engravings and illustrations appeared in Historical Collections of Every Town In Massachusetts by Barber and Steamboat Disasters and Railroad Accidents in the United States by Howland, 1840.


J. Ross Browne, 1821-1875.  Born in Dublin, his family settled in Louisville, KY in the 1830s.  Starting at the age of 18 he began to travel.  He published books about his journeys illustrated with pen drawings.  Among his books are, Etchings of A Whaling Cruise, 1844, Crusoe’s Island, 1864 and Adventures in the Apache Country, 1869. (809)* Harper’s Magazine published his works done in Europe and the Middle East.  He also recorded the American West. (4400)*


James H. Cafferty, 1819-1869.  Mainly know as a painter, his illustrations did appear in Fairy Tales and Legends of Many Nations, 1849 and Appleton’s Illustrated Hand-Book of American Travel, 1857. 


George W. Carleton, 1832-1901.  A well known New York publisher, Carleton wrote and illustrated Our Artist In Cuba, 1865.


William de la Montagne Cary, 1840-1922.  Cary travel West in 1861 and painted scenes of the frontier and Native American life. (1104)* His engravings appeared in Harper’s Weekly (4139)* and The Aldine.  A Popular History of the United States contains 45 illustrations by Cary.


John William Casilear, 1811-1893.  Casilear is known for his landscape paintings.  His illustrations and engravings of his works can be found in The Poets of the Nineteenth Century, 1858, Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, 1864, The Token and Atlantic Souvenir, 1839, The Sunnyside Book, 1871 and Home Views by Clark, 1863. (8031,8030,8024,8021)*


George Catlin, 1796-1872.  Catlin was a lawyer, portrait painter and author.  He painted and documented the Native Americans of the American West.  Often the first white man the Indians had ever seen, they permitted him to live with them and to witness and record their daily lives and ceremonies.  Catlin took five trips between 1830 and 1836, eventually visiting fifty tribes.  He returned to the West several more times to record additional tribes and painted stunning portraits of their leaders.  Catlin produced more than 500 paintings and gathered a substantial collection of artifacts.  In 1841 Catlin published Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, in two volumes, with about 300 engravings.  Three years later he published 25 plates, entitled Catlin’s North American Indian Portfolio, and, in 1848, Eight Years’ Travels and Residence in Europe.  From 1852 to 1857 he traveled through South and Central America and later returned for further exploration in the Far West.  The record of these later years is contained in Last Rambles Amongst the Indians of the Rocky Mountains and the Andes (1868) and My Life Among the Indians. (3965,3956,3966)*


W. L. Champney, 1834-1880.  J. H. Bufford’s lithograph of the “Boston Massacre” was based on an illustration by Champney.  Illustrations by Champney were published in Town and Country: or, Life at Home and Abroad, Without and Within Us by Adams, 1855, Minnie; or, The Little Woman, 1857, Clever Stories of Many Nations by Saxe, 1865, and The Riverside Magazine For Young People, 1867-68. 


Charles H. Chapin, 1830-1889.  He was an illustrator, art teacher and painter known for his landscapes.  During his career he had studios in New York, New Orleans, Los Angeles and San Francisco.  Chapin was an illustrator of Civil War scenes for Harper's Weekly in 1860s. (8570,8568,1473)*


John R. Chapin, 1827-1907.  John Chapin was a native of Rhode Island.  His illustrations appeared in Godey’s Lady’s Book, Illustrated American News, Harper’s Magazine, and Frank Leslie’s Illustrated News.  (2227,2226,2224)* His work was also published in The Departed Sister and Other Tales by Alden, 1848, Francis’ Metallic Life-Boat Company, 1852, The Second War With England by Headley, 1853, History of The City of New York, 1859, The American Revolution, 1860, Crusoe’s Island by Browne, 1864 and Beyond the Mississippi, 1869.


Carlton Theodore Chapman, 1860-1925.  Chapman was a marine and landscape painter.  He was commissioned by the Naval Academy to paint scenes of the War of 1812.  During the Spanish American War he was sent with the US Navy by Harper’s Weekly Magazine to Cuba.  His sketches recorded scenes of the battles. (1776,1766)* His also sent sketches to Scribner’s Magazine.


F. A. Chapman, 1818-1891.  He was a portrait and landscape painter and in the sixties painted a series of Civil War scenes.  His illustrations appeared in Seven Little People and their Friends, 1862, Sacred Poems by Willis, 1860, Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, 1864, The Tribute Book, 1865, Beyond the Mississippi, 1869 and The Cotter’s Saturday Night by Burns, 1872.  


John Gadsby Chapman, 1808-1889.  He was a well known painter and illustrator.  Some of his best known illustrations are those from Harper’s The Illuminated Bible, 1846 and Chapman’s The American Drawing Book, 1847.  His illustrations also appeared in Benjamin Franklin: His Autobiography, 1849, Allegories and Tales by Adams, 1849-50, Library of American History, 1851, The Fairy-Book, 1837 and A Gift from Fairy Land by Paulding, 1838.


Frederic Edwin Church, 1826-1900.   Church was a famous landscape artist.  His illustrations appeared in books such as Folk Songs, 1861, Festival of Song, 1866 and A Popular History of The United States, 1876-81.


Frederick M. Coffin, 1822-?  His work was popular during the 1850s and he did some work for Harper’s Magazine.   Coffin’s illustrations appeared in many books including, Fern Leaves From Fanny’s Portfolio by Parton, 1853, Life and Sayings of Mrs. Partington, and Others of the Family, 1854, Faggots For the Fireside by Parley, 1855, A Book for the Times by Folio, 1855, The Tangletown Letters, 1856 and Twelve Years a Slave by Northup, 1853.


Samuel Colman, 1832-1920.  Colman was known landscape painter.  His illustrations appeared in Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, 1864, Festival of Song, 1864, The Atlantic Almanac, 1868, Ballads of New England, 1879 and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879.


Palmer Cox, 1840-1922.   His Brownie Books and drawings were very popular with children of the period.  In the 1800s Brownie stories appeared in St. Nicholas Magazine (7158)* and the Ladies’ Home Journal. (587)*


Eanger Irving Couse, 1866–1936, was born in Michigan where as a boy he did drawings of the local Chippewa people.  Couse studied in Chicago, New York and Paris.  He settled in New Mexico and became a founding member and first president of the Taos Society of Artists.  He is known for his paintings of Native Americans, New Mexico, and the American Southwest.  During the early 1900s, Couse’s paintings of Southwestern Native Americans were reproduced by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway for their calendars. (3420,4560)*


William Croome, 1790-1860.  Croome was an illustrator and engraver.  He illustrated history and children’s books and did illustrations for magazines. (4818)* His illustrations appeared in Scrapbook, 1840, Robert Merry’s Museum, 1841, The Life and Perambulations of a Mouse by Kilner, 1846, Pictorial Life or Andrew Jackson by Frost, 1847, Pictorial Life of George Washington by Weld, 1847, The Pictorial History of The United States of America by Frost, 1848, The Golden Sands of Mexico, 1850, and Rhymes for the Nursery, 1851.


William T. Crane, 1830-1878.  Throughout the Civil War, Crane worked as a special artist for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper. (2049)* Under orders from General Quincy A. Gilmore, Crane drew a series of sequential views of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor depicting the stages of the fort’s demolition. (2358)* General Gilmore included these detailed and shocking drawings in his final report to the War Department. They were later reproduced in the government’s Official Records.  (2099,2158,2042)*


Jacob A. Dallas, 1825-1857.  Dallas was an early Harper’s Magazine artist. (4429)* He is said to have been influenced by Darley.  His illustrations appeared in The Life of Sam Houston by Lester, 1855, The Mock Marriage, 1855, Chile Con Carne by Smith, 1857, The Drama of Earth by Kidder, 1857, The War in Kansas by Brewerton, 1857 and Popular Fairy Tales for Little Folks, 1859.


Louis Dalrymple, 1866-1905.  His political cartoons and comic illustrations appeared in the magazine Puck.  (6151,6156,6161,6155)*


Felix Octavius Carr Darley, 1822-1888.  In 1841 Darley was hired as a staff illustrator by Graham’s Lady’s and Gentleman’s Magazine and his illustrations also appeared in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. (4496)*   Darley was one of America’s early book illustrators.  His work appeared in many books including Peter Ploddy and Other Oddities, 1844, Scenes in Indian Life by Darley, 1843, Major Jones’s Courtship by Thompson, 1844, Grandfather Lovechild’s Nursery Stories, 1847, A Life of Gen. Zachary Taylor by Fry, 1848 and A History of New York by Irving, 1850.  A prolific illustrator, he is probably most famous for his drawings for Washington Irving’s Sketch Book, Rip Van Winkle, and Knickerbockers’ History of New York.  In 1956 Darley was commissioned to illustrate the complete works of James Fennimore Cooper.  Some believe Darley’s work shows the influence of George Cruikshank. (461,460)*


Julian Oliver Davidson, 1853-1894.  Davidson illustrated for various publications including Century’s Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. (8339,8338,8326)* He is best known for his maritime and naval scenes.


Theodore R. Davis, 1840-1894.  As an artist-correspondent for Harper’s Weekly Davis was wounded twice and had his horse shot out from under him.  In April, 1861 Harper’s gave Davis permission to travel in the southern states with William H. Russell, correspondent for the London Times.  It was already becoming dangerous for a northern man to travel among the Rebels.  He told people that he was an artist for the Illustrated London News and as a member of Russell’s party, he was protected.  However, Russell apparently did not know that Davis was sending sketches and intelligence back to Harper’s.  Their relationship ended in controversy.  Theodore Davis made drawings of both military and political events. (1271,6312,1456)* Some of these drawings include the Battle of Champion Hill, and the sketch of General Joseph E. Johnston and General William T. Sherman meeting at the Bennett Farm near Durham Station to discuss the surrender terms of the remaining Confederate armies in the Southeast.  He was often in the center of the action, especially when he traveled with General Grant’s staff at the Vicksburg campaign and was part of General Sherman’s March-to-the Sea. (1612)* After the war, Davis continued to work for Harper’s covering the reconstruction and traveling West. (1685)* He was the first to document the Sioux in 1865, was with General Custer in 1867 and traveled with Hancock’s Indian Expedition.  In retirement he wrote a treatise titled, “How a Battle is Sketched”.


Benjamin H. Day, Jr., 1838-1916.  Day was an illustrator for Vanity Fair and his work also appeared in Leslie’s Illustrated and Harper’s Weekly. (1932)* His illustrations can be seen in Beyond The Mississippi, 1869, Around The World With General Grant, 1879, and A Tramp Abroad, 1880.


Nathaniel Dearborn, 1786-1852.  Dearborn was an early Boston engraver.  Engravings and designs by him appeared in Letters Written From London, 1813, The Friendly Instructor, 1814, The Story of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, 1814 and A Topographical and Historical Description of Boston, 1817.


Mauritz Frederik Hendrik DeHaas, 1832-1895.  Known as a marine painter he was born in Rotterdam, Netherlands and came to New York City in 1859.  During the Civil War, he painted several naval scenes for Admiral Farragut.  His illustrations appeared in Festival of Song, 1866, The Riverside Magazine for Young People, 1867, The Good Old Time, 1867, and Home Views by Clark, 1863. (8076)*


George H. Derby, 1825-1861.  After serving in the Mexican American War, Derby was sent to California where he did work for the San Diego Herald and The Pioneer.  A writer of humor, he wrote and illustrated his own books under the name of John Phoenix.  The Squibob Papers, 1865 by John Phoenix contains 30 illustrations.


George T. Devereux, 1810-?  A pupil of Abel Bowen, Devereux worked as an engraver in Boston from 1837-1844 and then in Philadelphia as an engraver and designer.  He was an illustrator of the Illustrated American News.  His illustrations can be found in The Lady’s Annual Register and Housewife’s Memorandum Book for 1838 by Gilman, The Pictorial History of the United States of America, 1848, and The Rough and Ready Annual, 1848.


Carl Emil Doepler, 1824-1905.  Doepler, born in Warsaw, he came to the United States in 1849.  He illustrated for Harper & Brothers and Putnam.  His illustrations can be seen in Rodolphus, 1852, The Book of Poetry, 1853, Stuyvesant, 1853, The History of Napoleon Bonaparte by Abbott, 1855, Rollo on the Rhine by Abbott, 1855, History of the City of New York, by Booth, 1859, and The Sunnyside Book, 1871.


John Downes.  He was an engraver and designer.  His work appeared in Parley’s Magazine, 1833-44, The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge, 1835, The Family Magazine, 1839 and The Young Man’s Evening Book, 1842.


Joseph Drayton, 1795-1856.  Drayton was an engraver and painter.  His engravings were published in the Analectic Magazine in 1819.  In 1838, Drayton, along with artist Alfred Agate, joined the United States Exploring Expedition also know as the Wilkes Expedition.  The expedition explored and surveyed the Pacific Ocean, its islands and coastlines from 1838-1842.  Drayton’s watercolors and sketches were published in Narrative of The United States Exploring Expedition, 1845. 


Asher Brown Durand, 1796-1886.  He was an engraver and a painter.  His engravings and illustrations appeared in Poems by Lynch, 1849, Festival of Song, 1866, The American Drawing-Book, 1870 and Home Views by Clark, 1868.  (8035,8032)*


Harrison Eastman, 1823-?  He was an engraver and designer.  He worked in San Francisco and for a time had his own firm, Eastman & Loomis.  His illustrations appeared in The Miner’s Ten Commandments, 1853, The Annals of San Francisco by Soule, 1855, Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California, 1861.


Captain Seth Eastman, 1808-1875.  An artist and West Point graduate, Captain Seth Eastman documented Native Americans for the United States Government during the mid 1800s. (4068,4097,4096,4071)* He served in the US Army as a map maker and illustrator and wrote and illustrated Treatise on Topographical Drawing, 1837.  Eastman did hundreds of drawings for Historical and Statistical Information Regarding the History, Conditions and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States 1851-7, in six volumes by Schoolcraft which was commissioned by the United States Congress. (4102,4100,4099,4098)* In 1838 he illustrated his wife’s book on the Dakota Sioux. 


John Whetten Ehninger, 1827-1889.  He was a painter, etcher and illustrator.  His works were published in Sacred Poems by Willis, 1860, Wild Sports in the South, 1860, Ballads of New England, 1870, The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879 and Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, 1864. 


Charles Ellms, 1805-1851.  He was an author and illustrator and publisher of The American Comic Almanac, 1831.  Ellms illustrated and authored Shipwrecks and Disasters at Sea, 1836, Robinson Crusoe’s Own Book, 1843, The Tragedy of the Seas, 1841 and The Pirates Own Book, 1837. 


Sol Eytinge, Jr., 1833-1905.  American illustrator of the 1800s, Eytinge is known for his illustrations for Bret Harte, John Hay’s poems and Dickens’ novels.  His work were published in Gems From Tennyson, 1866, a six volume Diamond edition of Charles Dickens, 1867, The Vision of Sir Launfal by Lowell, 1867, The Atlantic Almanac, 1868, Ballads of New England, 1870, Condensed Novels by Harte, 1871, The Heathen Chinee, by Harte, 1871, Work: A Story of Experience by Alcott, 1873, Mice At Play by Forest, 1876, Jim Bludso of the Prairie Belle and Little Breeches by Hay, 1871, and A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81. 


Gaston Fay.  Fay’s illustrations appeared in The Empress Josephine by Muhlbach, 1867, The Riverside Magazine for Young People, 1867-68, How a Bride was Won by Gerstacker, 1869, Steven Lawrence, Yeoman by Edwards, 1869, and Never Again by Mayo, 1873.


Henry Fenn, 1845-1911.  Born in England, he came to the United States as a teenage and became a leading American illustrator.  He illustrations appeared in The Tribute Book, 1865, The Atlantic Almanac, 1868, Snow-Bound by Whittier, 1868, Ballads of New England by Whittier, 1870, The Song of the Sower, 1871, Winter Poems, 1871, Picturesque America by Bryant, 1872, The Story of the Fountain, 1872, Around the World with General Grant, 1879, The Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard by Gray, 1884.  Fenn’s illustrations were published in Century Magazine (5176,624)* and in Century’s Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. (8340,8339,8338,8337,8336,8335,8334)*


Jonathan Fisher, 1768-1847.  Fisher was a man with many talents.  He was a minister, artist, illustrator, poet and printer.  His illustrations appeared in The Youth’s Primer by Fisher, 1817, Short Poems by Fisher, 1827, and Scripture Animals, or Natural History of the Living Creatures Named in the Bible by Fisher, 1834.


W. Fiske.  Fiske was an illustrator of Vanity Fair, 1859-63 and Punchinello, 1870-71.  His illustrations were signed “Fiske,” “W. F.,” or “F.” 


James Montgomery Flagg, 1877-1960.  Although Flagg is known as a premier illustrator, caricaturist and artist of the 1900s, his first illustrations were published when he was a young boy in the 1800s.  At the age of twelve he had illustrations published in magazines.  At age 14 he was an artist for Life and a year later he was on the staff of Judge.  A photogravure frontispiece by Flagg appeared in The Writings of Bret Harte, 1896. (1070)* 


Mary Hallock Foote, 1847-1938.  Mary Hallock Foote was known for her novels and illustrations of the West.  Accompanying her husband who was a mining engineer and prospector, Mary spent most of her life in the West and became the only woman of the period to be a Western illustrator and author.  Along with her books, her illustrations appeared in Harper’s Weekly, Scribner’s Monthly, St. Nicholas, Collier’s and the New York Herald. (1072,5172)* Her work can also be found in Beyond the Mississippi, 1869, Mabel Martin by Whittier, 1876, Arthur Bonnicastle by Holland, 1873, and The Skeleton in Armor by Longfellow, 1877. 


Edwin Forbes, 1839-1895.  Born in New York, his career as an illustrator began in 1861 when he became a staff artist for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.  He recorded the campaigns of the Army of the Potomac from Cross Keys in the Shenandoah Valley to the battles at Manassas in 1862 and the siege of Petersburg in 1864. (2147)* Forbes would make quick sketches on the battlefields and then refine them in his tent studio back at camp.  Many of his sketches were later made into copper engravings.  In 1864 he left Leslie’s but continued to draw scenes of the war.  He was awarded a medal at the Philadelphia Centennial in 1876 for his “Life Studies of the Great Army.”  General William T. Sherman purchased the first proof and donated it to the United States government.  In 1890 he published a summary of his work in Thirty Years After: An Artist’s Story of the Great War. (880)* Illustrations by Forbes also appeared in The Upper Ten Thousand by Bristed, 1852, Beyond the Mississippi, 1869, The Atlantic Almanac, 1871 and School Days at Mount Pleasant by Morley, 1871.


Alfred Fredericks, d. 1926.  He was a painter, wood engraver and illustrator of books and magazines.  His illustrations appeared in Festival of Song, 1866, Ballads of New England, 1870, The Little People of the Snow by Bryant, 1873, An Open Question by Mille, 1873, The Catskill Fairies by Johnson, 1876, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81, Poetical Works of William Cullen Bryant, 1878, The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879.  Fredericks also did illustrations for Harper’s Weekly (1398, 1397)* and Harper’s Monthly. (6133)* 


Paul Frenzeny, 1840-1902.  His illustrations appeared in Harper’s Weekly and Harper’s Bazaar in the late 1800s. (1686)* His western sketches were also signed by fellow Frenchman Jules Tavernier. (4116,1955)* In 1889 he illustrated Fifty Years on the Trail by O’Reilly. 


Arthur Burdett Frost, 1851-1928.  In 1876, Frost joined the art department at Harper & Brothers.  In 1877 he went to London to study with some of the great cartoonists of the time.  He returned to Philadelphia where he published several stories with sequential drawings and captions, pioneering the form that would develop into comic strips and comic books. (1642,1645)* Frost illustrated over 90 books and produced hundreds of paintings; in addition to his work in illustrations. (6138)* He is renowned for realistic hunting and shooting prints. (2955)* In 1884, Frost published Stuff and Nonsense, an anthology of his works that advanced the concept of time-stop drawings and contained other innovations.  Frost’s illustrations were published in many of the magazines and newspapers of the late 1800s including Harper’s Monthly, Scribner’s, Harper’s Weekly, Harper’s Young People, and Century. (6138,6201,6851,874,563,1723,1722,6849)*


Gilbert Gaul, 1855-1919.  Born in New Jersey, he was known for his military art.  He provided numerous illustrations to Century Magazine for its publication of Battles and Leaders of the Civil War 1887–88. (5179,5176)* He also did work for Harper's Weekly.  In the 1890 he worked for the federal census recording the Native Americans in North Dakota. (1094)* Gaul won medals at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893 and at the Buffalo Exposition in 1902. (8326)*


Charles Dana Gibson, 1867-1944.  Gibson’s works appeared in all the major New York publications, Harper's Weekly, Scribner’s and Collier's.  He also illustrated many books and short stories.  He created the "Gibson Girl" in 1890.  She reassured Americans that an American woman could be desirable, worthy, interesting and no less noble than her European rivals.  The Gibson Girl was an independent spirit.  She was gallant, courageous, self-reliant and desirable without being sexy.  She made Gibson a wealthy man.  He became the editor and eventual owner of Life after the death of Mitchell in 1918.  The popularity of the Gibson Girl faded after World War I, and Gibson took to working with oils for his own pleasure. (6195,6159,2898,5177,5171)*


Robert Swain Gifford, 1840-1903.  Gifford was an accomplished marine painter.  Along with photographer Edward Curtis, he was an artist on the Harriman Alaska Expedition in 1899.  Gifford’s illustrations appeared in Festival of Song, 1866, The Building of the Ship, 1870, Picturesque America, 1872-74, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81, and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879.


Jasper Green, 1829-1910.  Green was born in Columbia, Pennsylvania.  He was an engraver, illustrator, and wood carver.  Green sketched battle scenes, events and people for Harper's Weekly during the Civil War.  His sketch titled, "A Female Rebel In Baltimore--An Everyday Scene," was the cover engraving of the Saturday, September 7, 1861 issue. (1206)* He was the father of illustrator Elizabeth Shippen Green.


Thomas Butler Gunn, 1826-1903.  He was an author and artist.  Gunn’s drawings appeared in Yankee Notions and the Lantern during the 1850s.  During the Civil War he worked as a correspondent for the New York Evening Post and the New York Tribune.  Gunn authored and contributed illustrations to The Physiology of New York Boarding-Houses, 1857.  His illustrations also appeared in The Harp of a Thousand Strings, 1858, The Jolly Joker, 1865 and Josh Billings, His Sayings, 1867. 


Casimir Clayton Griswold, 1834-1918.  Known as a landscape painter, his illustrations appeared in Kathrina, 1869, The Song of the Sower, 1871, Winter Poems, 1871, Picturesque America, 1872-74, and Poetical Works of William Cullen Bryant, 1878. 


Edward S. Hall was born in England in about 1840.  By 1860 he was a resident of New York and established as a book illustrator.  In 1861 he worked for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper and was sent to Baltimore, MD with Francis B. Schell to cover the Baltimore riots.  Throughout the spring and summer of 1862 he covered the war in Virginia.  His illustrations appeared in A Christmas Dream, 1860.


John H. Hall was born in New York about 1825.  He became a noted wood engraver of the first half of the nineteenth century.  His engravings and illustrations appeared in Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, 1829, The History of Goody Two Shoes, 1829, The New Robinson Crusoe, 1829, The Girls’ Own Book, 1833, and he is noted for his engravings in A Manual of The Ornithology of the United States and of Canada by Nuttall, 1832 and 1834.


James R. Hamilton was an English architect who moved to Cincinnati in 1852.   Hamilton won a silver medal at the Ohio Mechanics’ Institute for his paintings, lithographs, architectural, and other drawings.  He later moved to New York City and served during the Civil Was as a special artist for Harper’s Weekly.  Hamilton reported from as far south as Port Hudson, Louisiana.  He was in Richmond, Virginia, from about 1864 to 1866. (6322,6315)*


James McDougal Hart, 1828-1901.  James was a landscape painter and like his brother William Hart, a Hudson River School Artist.  His illustrations appeared in Festival of Song, 1866, The Sunnyside Book, 1871 and Picturesque America, 1872-74. 


William McDougal Hart, 1823-1894.  A landscape painter and a Hudson River School Artist, his work appeared in Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, 1864, Festival of Song, 1866, Picturesque America, 1872-74, and Home Views by Clark, 1863. (8063,8018,8034,8044)*


Alonzo Hartwell, 1805-1873.  His wood engravings illustrated many books and magazines including The Galaxy of Wit, 1826, American Comic Annual, 1831, Parley’s Magazine, 1833-44, The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge, 1834-37, The Oldest of All Odd Volumes, 1841, Robert Merry’s Museum, 1841, and Original Poems for Infant Minds, 1853.


William John Hennessy, 1839-1917.  Born in Ireland, he settled with his family in New York in 1848.  Hennessy was known in this country mainly an illustrator and engraver.  He contributed to periodicals including Harper’s Weekly and Frank Leslie’s Illustrated. (6299,1445)* Collectors at times confuse his initials with the initials of Winslow Homer.  His illustrations also appeared in Folk Songs, 1861, Enoch Arden, 1865, Festival of Song, 1865, Gems From Tennyson, 1866, Maud Muller by Whittier, 1867, Kathrina by Holland, 1869, The Building of a Ship by Longfellow, 1870, The Song of the Sower, 1871 and The Spider and the Fly, 1873.


Henry William Herbert (Frank Forester), 1807-1858.  He was a poet, author and illustrator.  He adopted the name Frank Forester in 1839 and became famous for his sporting literature.  Among the books that he wrote and illustrated are Frank Foresters’ Field Sports of the United States an British Provinces of North America, 1849, My Shooting Box, 1846, The Warwick Woodlands, 1851, The Quorndon Hounds, 1852, and American Game in it’s Seasons, 1853. 


Henry W. Herrick, 1824-1906.  He was an artist, historian and illustrator.  His illustrations appeared in Puddleford and its People by Riley, 1854, The Banks of New York, 1857, Sacred Poems by Willis, 1860, The Little Nurse of Cape Cod by Warner, 1863, Sketches of the Rise, Progress and Decline of Secession by Brownlow, 1862, The Tribute Book, 1865, The Riverside Magazine for Young People, 1867-68, Desk and Debit by Optic, 1871, Our Baby, 1872, and Around the World With General Grant, 1879.


C.E.F. Hillen, an illustrator and author, worked for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated as a special artist during the Civil War.  He produced sketches of the war in Tennessee and Georgia including the 1863 Battle of Chattanooga and the 1864 Capture of Lost Mountain.  His illustrations appear in Leslie’s 1896 Famous Leaders and Battle Scenes of the Civil War and the 1893 The Soldier in Our Civil War.  Hillen also recorded the life and service of African Americans. 


John Francis Edward Hillen, 1819-1865.  Born in Belgium, he lived in Philadelphia in the early 1850s and joined the Union Army in 1861.  He was wounded in 1862 and discharged as disabled.  In the same year, his scenes of war in West Virginia were published in Harper’s Weekly.  He worked as a “special artist” for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper from 1862 to 1865, which published his drawings of battles and camp life in Virginia, Georgia, and Tennessee.


DeWitt Clinton Hitchcock, 1824-1879.  He was an engraver and illustrator who worked for Harper’s and the Illustrated American News.  His work appeared in New York in a Nutshell by Saunders, 1853, Newport Illustrated, 1854, Waikna, 1855, Appleton’s Illustrated Hand-Book of American Travel, 1857, Sacred Poems by Willis, 1860 and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879. 


Thomas Hogan, ?-1900.  Hogan’s illustrations appeared in Appleton’s Journal, Century and Harper’s Weekly. (8338,8335)* He and illustrator Francis H. Schell were partners for thirty years. (1420,1419,8341,2967)* His work was also published in The Tribute Book, 1865, A History of the City of Brooklyn by Stiles, 1867-70 and Beyond the Mississippi, 1869.


Winslow Homer, 1836-1910.  Born in Boston, he began work as a lithographer at age nineteen but soon switched to illustration and painting.  Homer’s first book illustration was the title page of a children’s series, The Percy Family.  He is most famous for his magazine illustrations.  The first drawing appeared in 1857 in Ballou’s Pictorial Drawing Room Companion.  His many magazine engravings appeared in Harper's Weekly, Ballou's Pictorial, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper and others.  In 1857 he moved to New York and began working of Harper’s Weekly.  He turned down a staff position at Harper’s preferring to be a freelance artist.  From 1861-1862, he sent drawings of the Civil War to Harper’s. (8541)* He sketched battle scenes, camp life and portraits of commanders.  Attached to the Army of The Potomac, his were the first drawings of General George B. McClellan.  Homer filled his sketch books with studies of uniforms, weapons, individual soldiers and daily life.  His work recorded the experiences of the soldiers, their bonding on the front lines as well as the terror of war. (1141,1130,1115,1117)* This body of material became the basis of some of the most important paintings of the Civil War. (8541)* After the war, he did engravings and paintings in the cities, on the farm, at the seaside and in the mountains.  Most of his famous oil and watercolor paintings were produced in the second half of his life after he moved to Maine.  As an American landscape painter and printmaker, he is best known for his marine subjects.  He is considered one of the foremost painters of 19th century.  His illustrations also appeared in Surry of Eagle’s-Nest by Cooke 1866, The Good Old Time by Moustache, 1866, Rural Poems by Barnes, 1869, The Atlantic Almanac, 1870, Ballads of New England, 1869, Winter Poems, 1871, The Story of the Fountain by Bryant, 1872 and Excelsior by Longfellow, 1878. 


Augustus Hoppin, 1828-1896.   He was considered a social satirist in the style of Du Maurier.  His illustrations appeared in magazines beginning in the 1840s and in books beginning in the 1850s.   Hoppin illustrated Potiphar Papers, Summer in Leslie Goldthwaite’s Life, Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, and Their Wedding Journey and many other books.


John S. Horton and Tudor Horton.  John S. Horton was associated with Tudor Horton.  Many of their illustrations were signed “Horton” or simply “H” so it is difficult to identify which engraver actually did the work.  Examples of books they illustrated are Persian Fables, 1836, Gambling Unmasked!, 1844, The White Horse of the Peppers, 1847, The History of the Bottle, 1848 and The Lost Children, 1848.  The latter two are signed T. Horton & Co.


Justin H. Howard.  Working during the second half of the nineteenth century, Howard was known for his comic illustrations. (2134,1241)* His work appeared in Nothing to Do, 1857, Nothing to You, 1857, Sut Lovingood by Harris, 1867, Punchinello, 1870 and Parodies, 1876.


Henry Howe, 1816-1893.  Howe was a publisher and illustrator of historical books.  They include Historical Collections of Virginia, 1845, Historical Collections of Ohio, 1851, and The Loyal West in the Times of The Rebellion, 1865.  He also did drawings for Historical Collections of the State of New York, 1841.


John Augustus Hows, 1832-1874.  His illustrations appeared in Pages and Pictures From the Writings of James Fenimore Cooper, 1861, The Liberty Bell, 1862, In the Woods with Bryant, Longfellow and Halleck, 1863, The Bryant Homestead Book, 1870, The Song of the Sower, 1871, The Sunnyside Book, 1871, The Story of the Fountain, 1872 and Poetical Works of William Cullen Bryant, 1878. 


Elizabeth Bullock (Lizzie) Humphrey, 1841-1889.  She was known for her New England landscape paintings and her drawings of children.  Lizzie also won awards for her greeting card designs.  Her illustrations appeared in Beyond the Mississippi, 1869, Three Generations by Emery, 1872, Sally Williams the Mountain Girl by Cheney, 1873, Drifting by Read, 1881 and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879.


John N. Hyde.  Hyde was an illustrator for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated News and Frank Leslie’s Popular Monthly. (2225,564,1957,2370)* His illustrations also appeared in Never Give Up,1863, Pictures and Lessons for Little Readers, 1864, Home Stories for Boys and Girls, 1865, A Single Gentleman by Thistle, 1867 and Nelly’s Visit by Franklin, 1864.


William Samuel Lyon Jewett, 1834-1876.  Born in New York, he was a painter and illustrator.  Jewett did many sketches and portraits for Harper’s Weekly. (1972,1495,8418,6296)* His illustrations also appeared in Harper’s Bazaar and he worked for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated News covering he trail of John Brown.  He signed his illustrations W.S.L.J. or simply W.J.  Research by his daughter identified a “winged lizard” signature used by him. 


David Claypoole Johnston, 1799-1865.  Johnston’s illustrations were influenced by Cruikshank.  They appeared in Scraps by Johnson, 1837, American Comic Annual, 1831, The Aurora Borealis, 1831, Charcoal Sketches by Neal, 1838, A World of Wonders, 1838, and The Little Frenchman and His Water Lots with Other Sketches of the Times by Morris 1839.


Theodore Kaufmann, 1814-1896.  Born in Germany, he immigrated to the United States in 1850 and settled in New York City where he worked as both a painter and teacher.  Thomas Nast was one of his students.  During the Civil War, he joined the Union Army and was also an artist-correspondent.  An engraving of his watercolor, “Fort Hatteras Just before the Surrender,” was published in the September 21, 1861 issue of Harper’s Weekly.  Kaufmann is known for his military and historical paintings and his portraits.


Edward Windsor Kemble, 1861-1933, was a very effective pen and ink artist.  He illustrated the first edition of Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn and many other stories and books including Uncle Tom's Cabin.  Kemble was also a political cartoonist, satirist and a sports reporter.  His works were published in Harper’s Weekly, Frank Leslie’s Illustrated, and Puck. (6171,2568,2685)* He was also a staff artist on the Daily Graphic.


John Frederick Kensett, 1816-1872.  A popular landscape painter, he was a member of the Hudson River School.  His illustrations appeared in Lotus-Eating by Curtis, 1852, Prismatics by Haywarde, 1853, Folk Songs, 1861, Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, 1864, Festival of Song, 1866, Gems From Tennyson, 1865 and Picturesque America, 1872-74.


Samuel Smith Kilburn, 1831-1903.  Kilburn trained under Abel Bowen and was a member of the Boston wood engraving firm of Kilburn & Mallory.  His illustrations can be found in Autographs for Freedom, 1853, Hartford in the Olden Time by Scaeva, 1853, The Inebriate’s Hut, 1854, Salt Water Bubbles by Martingale, 1854, The Seven Little Sisters who Live on the Round Ball the Floats in the Air by Andrewsa, 1861, Gascoyne by Ballantyne, 1865, Specimen of Designing and Engraving on Wood by Kilburn, 1872, and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879.


John LaFarge, 1835-1910.  He was noted for his work in stained glass.  His illustrations appeared in Scribner’s Monthly and The Riverside Magazine for Young People.  They also appeared in Enoch Arden by Tennyson, 1865 and Song from the Old Dramatists, 1873.


Eliza Leslie, 1787-1858.  She was a writer and illustrator.  Her illustrations appeared in Atlantic Tales, 1833, and The Young Revolutionists by Leslie, 1853.


James Otto Lewis, 1799-1858.  Lewis was commissioned by the United States Indian Department to attend Native American councils and treaty signings where he interviewed and painted portraits of the chiefs from 1823-1834.  He attended treaty signings during the 1920s in Wisconsin and Indiana and also travelled throughout the upper Midwest visiting and getting to know the tribes.  Lewis painted the Native Americans as he saw them, from life and on the spot.  Lithographs by Lehman & Duval of his portraits were published in The Aboriginal Portfolio, Philadelphia, 1835-1836.  The Portfolio was the first color plate publication of Native Americans and it influenced both artists and scholars.  His works were earlier than those by Catlin and ones later lithographed by McKenney and Hall.  The Portfolio, however, was not monetarily a success. (1068,1101,1067)*


William J. Linton, 1812-1897.  A leading wood engraver, Linton wrote The History of Wood Engraving in America.  His illustrations appeared in The Lake Country, 1864, Claribel and Other Poems, 1865, The Flower and the Star and Other Stories for Children, 1868 and The Flood of Years, 1878.


Benson J. Lossing, 1813-1891.  An illustrator and author of historical books, he produced the Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution in 1848, Pictorial History of The Civil War in the United States, 1866 and A Pictorial History of The United States, 1854.  He also wrote and illustrated books on the War of 1812. 


Henri Lovie, 1829-1875.  Lovie’s career began in Cincinnati as a painter and illustrator.  In 1860, Lovie joined Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper as a “special artist.”  He was sent in February 1861 to follow Abraham Lincoln from Springfield, Illinois to Washington D.C. for the presidential inauguration.  Lovie joined General George McClellan’s army in Washington.  He sketched the battle of Philippi and scenes of the West Virginia mountains.  In June 1861, he joined the Federal Expeditionary Forces going up the Missouri River under the command of Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyons to capture Jefferson City and Boonville.  The campaign ended with a Union retreat after the Battle of Wilson’s Creek where Lovie recorded the death of General Lyons.  Lovie escaped to Lebanon, Kentucky drawing scenes of battles at Munfordville, Kentucky and Stones River, Tennessee.  There he recorded the death of Colonel Julius Garesche. (2095,6443,2088,2091)* Lovie returned to Cincinnati after the war but moved to Philadelphia in 1868 to complete a life-size bronze figure of a soldier.  The statue stands as a war memorial in Springfield, Ohio.


Joseph Christian Leyendecker, 1874-1951.  At the age of sixteen, he began his career as an apprentice to J. Manz & Company, Chicago and studied at the Art Institute.  His career as an illustrator was established when he won The Century magazine’s poster award in 1896.  For Over forty years, beginning in 1899, his paintings appeared on the covers of The Saturday Evening Post.  His famous "New Year's Baby" was a topical commentary on the times.  Leyendecker created the handsome young man for the Arrow Collar Company ad.  He and his younger brother, Frank both had successful American illustration careers.  (569,2861,5878)*


Arthur Lumley, 1837-1912.  Born in Dublin, Ireland, Lumley came to this country before 1840 and made his home in Brooklyn.  He did illustrations for Harper’s Weekly, New York Illustrated News and Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.  He was the first artist sent by Frank Leslie’s Illustrated to the Army of the Potomac to cover the Civil War.  As a “special artist” he accompanied General Irwin McDowell’s army as it engaged the Confederate forces at Bull Run Creek.  When Confederate forces counterattack and broke the Federal assault, Lumley captured the resulting panic as the Union Army retreated to Washington.  In 1862 he went to work for the New York Illustrated News.  After the war he did book illustrations and contributed social satire drawings to The Daily Graphic.  Established in the early 1870s, it was the first illustrated daily newspaper in the United States.


John H. Manning, 1820-?  Manning was an engraver and designer and a member of the firm of Manning & Brown, Boston.  He was an artist for Gleason’s Pictorial, later Ballou’s.  His work appeared in The Crockett Almanac, The People’s Almanac and The Old American Comic Almanac.


Tompkins Harrison Matteson, 1813-1884.  He was known for his historical paintings (8052)* His illustrations appeared in The Life of General Lafayette by Cutter, 1849, Life of Nathanael Greene by Simms, 1849 and The Complete Works of William Shakespeare, 1851.


William R. McComas, 1840-1909.  McComas was born in Cincinnati.  He began his career as a special artist with drawings of scenes of the Northern Virginia campaign published in New York Illustrated News.  He started drawing for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated News in 1861.  His first drawing was of Paducah, KY.  He was assigned as special artist to Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant’s army, which he accompanied to Bowling Green, Kentucky and to the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee.  He enlisted as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 79th Ohio Infantry in 1862.  McComas continued to send drawings to New York throughout his military career.  In 1863, he was detailed as a topographical engineer to Major General John McClernand’s staff.  General McClernand cited McComas for commendation in his report of the Battle of Champion’s Hill, Mississippi in May 1863.  McComas was promoted to Captain in August 1863 and continued to serve in campaigns in Texas until he was discharged in 1865.  He then returned to Cincinnati.


Jervis McEntee, 1828-1891.  Known as a landscape painter and a member of the Hudson River School, he was also a draftsman and engraver.  His illustrations appeared in Folk Songs, 1861, Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, 1864, Festival of Song, 1866, Winter Poems, 1871 and Among the Trees, 1874.


James W. McLaughlin, 1834-1923.  Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, he was a successful illustrator and architect.  He designed the Cincinnati Art Museum, the Moorish Revival Plum Street Temple, the Art Academy of Cincinnati, Machinery Hall, the Cincinnati Gas Light and Coke Co. building, and the first Cincinnati Reds baseball stadium.  He also designed the buildings of the Cincinnati Zoological Gardens, the first structures created expressly for that purpose in the United States.  When the Civil War began in 1861, he volunteered as a lieutenant in the Infantry Body Guard of General John C. Fremont.  While serving in the Army of the Southwest, McLaughlin became a special artist for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.


John McLenan, 1827-1865.  McLenan was an illustrator and caricaturist.   His engraving appeared in Harper’s Weekly from 1859 to 1861.  He illustrated American editions of Dickens’ Tale of Two Cities and Great Expectations.  He also did the illustrations for Woman in White by Wilkie Collins.  McLenan’s illustrations appeared in many other books and in the magazine Punch.


John McNevin.  He was a book illustrator and a contributing artist to Harper’s Weekly in 1859 and 1860.  His work appeared in Life, Explorations and Public Services of John Charles Fremont by Upham, 1856, Memoirs of Washington by Kirkland, 1857, My Married Life at Hillside by Gray, 1865 and The Tribute Book, 1856.


Frank Thayer Merrill, 1848-?  His illustrations appeared in Album of Wood Engravings by Andrew, Moods by Alcott, 1870, Punchinello, 1870, The Deerings of Medbury by Townsend, 1871, The Prince and the Pauper by Twain, 1882 and Our Base Ball Club and How It Won the Championship by Brooks, 1884.


William Momberger, 1829-?  He was a lithographer, engraver and illustrator of books and newspapers.  His work appeared in Up the River by Shelton, 1853, Cyclopedia of American Literature by Duyckinck, 1855, Home Games for the People, 1855, The New Purchase by Carlton, 1855 and Beauty and the Beast, 1856.


Thomas Moran, 1837-1926.  He is known for his paintings of the American West. (7165,4242,4441)* Moran’s work appeared in Picturesque America, 1872-74, Songs of Nature, 1873, Wonders of Yellowstone by Richardson, 1873, Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and its Tributaries, 1869-72, The Hanging of the Crane by Longfellow, 1875, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81, The Pacific Tourist, 1879 and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879.


Matthew Somerville Morgan, 1839-1890.  Born in London, he was an artist correspondent for the London Illustrated News.  Morgan came to the United States in 1870.  As a caricaturist and political cartoonist, he was hired by Frank Leslie’s Illustrated as an answer to Harper’s Weekly’s Thomas Nast. (2237,2235,2244,2219,2029)* Morgan’s political cartoons in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated News during the election of 1872 were anti-Grant. (2683,2243,2236,2027)* He signed his cartoons Matt Morgan.


Henry Mosler, 1841-1920.  Born in what is now Poland, Henry moved with his parents to New York when he was eight and then to Cincinnati in 1851.  He studied there with James Beard.  From 1862 to 1863 he was a Civil War illustrator for Harper's Weekly.  He drew scenes in and around Cincinnati and Kentucky. (1511,1539)* Following General Buell’s Army (1345)* he recorded the battle of Perryville, Kentucky (1188)* and the occupation of Camp Nevin. (1237)* Mosler became a well-known illustrator and painter of portraits and genre scenes.  In 1863 he went to Europe where he earned many honors.  He received a silver medal in Paris 1889, and gold medals at Paris in 1888, and Vienna, 1893.


Edward F. Mullen, 1859-1872.  Mullen was a well-known comic and book illustrator before he became a “special artist” for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper in 1864.  He was sent with other Leslie artists to draw the siege of Petersburg.  In the following months, he continued to focus on the details of battle and its aftermath. He recorded the burial squads at Antietam and Petersburg.  His images captured the difficulties the Union forces were facing.  After the war, he returned to New York and continued illustrating.  Mullen’s illustrations appeared in Drifting About by Massett, 1863, The Life and Adventures, Songs, Services and Speeches of Private Miles O’Reilly by Halpine, 1864, Artemus Ward by Browne, 1865 and Beyond the Mississippi, 1869.


Charles Christian Nahl, 1818-1878.  Known for his illustrations of life in California and the Gold Rush miners, Nahl has been called the Cruickshank of California.  His illustrations appeared in Pen Knife Sketches or Chips of the Old Block, 1853, The Idle and Industrious Miner, 1854, Old Block’s Sketch-Book or Tales of California Life, 1856, The Miners’ Own Book, 1858, The Adventures of James Capen Adams, Mountaineer and Grizzly Bear Hunter of California, 1860 and Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California, 1861. 


Thomas Nast, 1840-1902.  Born in Bavaria, he came to New York in 1846.  At fifteen, Nast became a draftsman for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated.  He briefly worked for the New York Illustrated News and The Illustrated London News.  In 1861 Nast became a staff artist for Harper’s Weekly.  Considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon," he was a caricaturist, satirist, and editorial cartoonist.  His vivid war drawings greatly influenced public opinion. (1332,1249)* During the Civil War years his work was pro Lincoln, pro Union, and anti Slavery. (1325)* He portrayed Southerners as the enemy—and sometimes as cruel and brutal. (1516)* Abraham Lincoln called him, "our best recruiting sergeant."  Nast’s political cartoons played an important role in Lincoln’s second election.  President Grant said, “Two things elected me, the sword of Sheridan and the pencil of Thomas Nast.”  Nast’s dramatic cartoons exposing the Tweed Ring in New York City, 1869-1872 made him famous. (1315,1318,1324)* Thomas Nast invented the Tammany Tiger, the Republican elephant and the Democratic donkey.  Nast produced Christmas scenes including his famous rendition of Santa Claus and did some book illustrations including children’s books.  


Victor Nehling, 1830-1909.  Nehling painted historical subjects.  His illustrations appeared in Festival of Song, 1866 and the Song of the Sower, 1871. (4516)*


William P. Noble.  He was a well known watercolor artist in Cincinnati.  In 1858 he helped organize the Cincinnati Sketch Club composed of Cincinnati’s leading artists.  The Cincinnati Commercial reported, on May 17, 1861 that the Sixth Ohio of the Guthrie Greys marched through the heart of Cincinnati.  They created an impressive site and were greeted with loud ovations from the crowds who lined their route.  William Noble was a lieutenant and an old member of the Greys.  He sent a sketch of the Cincinnati scene to Harper’s Weekly. (6301)*


Johannes Adam Oertel, 1823-1909.  Born in Bavaria, he immigrated to the United States in 1848.  Oertel was an artist, teacher and Episcopal clergyman.  During the Civil War he did engravings of army life. (1289)* His work included religious topics and scenes.  His illustrations appeared in American Missionary Memorial, 1853, The Book of Poetry, 1853, Caroline, 1853, and Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon Gent, 1864.  Oertel assisted in decorating the Capitol in Washington and his work is in the National Cathedral. 


James R. O’Neill, 1833-1863.  Born in Ireland, his family moved to Wisconsin Territory in 1843.  He became known as an artist, actor and musician.  In 1860 he moved with friends to Leavenworth, Kansas.  With the outbreak of Civil War, O’Neill sketched soldiers and officers at Ft. Leavenworth, selling some to Frank Leslie’s Illustrated.  Frank Leslie hired him as a part-time artist in 1863.  His job was to follow Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt's Army of the Frontier into combat and draw sketches of the battle scenes he witnessed. (2050)* O’Neill also contributed political cartoons.  He was killed at Baxter Springs by members of Quantrill’s Raiders, Confederate irregulars.  They were known to not take prisoners and killed both noncombatants like O’Neill and civilians. (2039)*


Bradley Sillick Osbon, 1827-1912.  An experienced sailor, Osbon worked for the New York World and then the New York Herald as its chief naval correspondent.  Using his skills as a seaman, he was able to cover the major naval battles of the war.  He hired on as Captain’s Clerk on the Harriet Lane from which he witnessed and reported the attack on Fort Sumter.  He reported the capture of New Orleans by signing on as a clerk aboard David G. Farragut’s flagship, the Hartford.  Along the way he earned extra cash by sending sketches of naval encounters to Harper’s Weekly.  His Port Royal sketches gave a vivid picture of the expedition.  (1497)*


Maxfield Parrish, 1870-1966, was known for his illustrations of fairy tales and mythology.  In his paintings, he used a built-up series of glazes to obtain beautiful translucent skies.  He valued craftsmanship and had a strong sense of design.  He built his own machine shop for manufacturing the props and making models for his complex picture settings. (589)* Parrish became one of the most popular advertising and cover design artists of his time.  Prints of his pictures were widely produced and distributed.  Parrish illustrated books, magazine ads and did large murals and panels for hotels and office buildings. (1044,475,476)*


Charles Parsons, 1821-1910.  Parsons was born in London.   He was known for his marine paintings, lithographs and illustrations.  His Civil War works published in Harper’s Weekly were signed C.P. and C. Parsons. (1540,1214)* Parsons’ illustrations appeared in Appleton’s Illustrated Hand-Book of American Travel, 1857, Sacred Poems by Willis, 1860, Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon Gent, 1864, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81 and Around the World with General Grant, 1879.    From 1863-1889 he was head art director for Harper’s Weekly where he gathered famous artists such as Reinhart, Abbey and Pyle. 


James William Pattison, 1844-1915.  Born in Boston, he later worked in New York City and Chicago.  During the Civil War he was an illustrator for Harper’s Weekly.  (8573,6381)* As a painter, he was known for his figures, animals, landscapes and marines.  Pattison was on the faculty of the Chicago Art Institute and editor of the Fine Arts Journal.


Joseph Pennell, 1857-1926.  Pennell was an etcher, lithographer, illustrator, author and art critic.  His first work was for Scribner's Monthly.  During the 1800s his illustrations appeared in St. Nicholas Magazine (587)*, The Century Magazine, (5181,6064,624,6056)* and Century’s Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (8335,8325,8331)* His prints had many themes, including monuments, cities, factories and the Panama Canal.  He won many medals and awards in the United States and in Europe, and is considered one of the great etching innovators of the time.  Pennell and his wife, Elizabeth Robins Pennell are remembered for their support of graphic art through Pennell's own books such as The Illustration of Books, 1896. 


Granville Perkins, 1830-1895.  He produced oils and watercolors and was also noted as an illustrator of harbor, marine and landscape scenes.  In 1851 he began engraving on wood for illustrated papers and magazines.  In 1853 he worked for Illustrated News under Frank Leslie.  From there he worked for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated and then Harper’s Weekly. During the Civil War he furnished drawings of naval operations, battles, genre, and portraits.  Many of his engravings were signed G. P. (1239,1484,1455)* His illustrations were published in most of the illustrated journals of the day and in many important books. (2190)* His book illustrations included Beyond the Mississippi, 1869, Our Admiral’s Flag Abroad, 1869, Ballads of New England, 1879, Picturesque America, 1872-74, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81, Around the World with General Grant, 1879, The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879 and The Bells, 1881.


Howard Pyle, 1853-1911.  Howard Pyle has been called the "Father of American Illustration."  He often signed his drawings with a simple “H.P.”  Pyle was also a great teacher inspiring a generation of illustration artists including, Harvey Dunn, N.C. Wyeth, Frank Schoonover, Elenore Abbott and Jessie Wilcox Smith.  He was a prolific author and illustrator of books and short stories.  The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood was his first book published in 1883 by Scribner’s. (509)* His well known illustrations of pirates are credited with creating the modern image of pirate dress. (471)* Pyle wrote and illustrated twenty-four of his own books and illustrated well over 100 other books.  His illustrations appeared in every major magazine in America; Century, Collier’s, Harper’s Monthly, Harper’s Weekly, Harper’s Young People, Ladies’ Home Journal, St. Nicholas and Scribner’s. (7134,587,6195,4346)* In 1906 he accepted a position as art director of McClure’s. 


Theodore Rabuske (Rabuski), 1803-?  He was a lithographer and publisher.  His illustrations appeared in Personal Narrative by Bartlett, 1854, Utah and the Mormons by Ferris, 1854, The Annals of San Francisco, 1855 and The War in Kansas, 1857.


Allen C. Redwood, 1844-1922.  Redwood was a native of North Carolina.  He joined the 55th Virginia at the start of the Civil War and witnessed extensive combat at Fredericksburg and Gettysburg where he was seriously wounded.  Redwood produced sketches of the war depicting soldiers in camp and in midst of battle.  Some of his sketches were published in Harper’s Weekly.  Surviving the war, he created many works depicting the horrors of war, images he witnessed personally.  Redwood was commissioned to do works for Century’s Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. (8336,8334,8330,8329)* He moved to Baltimore after the war.  His illustrated stories appeared in magazines such as The Cosmopolitan. (3262)* Many of his works are displayed at the Virginia Historical Society.


Charles Stanley Reinhart, 1844-1896.  Reinhart was a painter and illustrator who worked for Harper & Brothers.  His illustrations appeared in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine (7130,7141)* and Harper’s Weekly. (1827,1431,1918)* His book illustrations appeared in Following the Equator by Mark Twain, (8209)* The Cryptogram by De Mille, 1871, Farm Ballads by Carleton, 1873, The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby by Dickens, 1875, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81, The Uncommercial Traveller by Dickens, 1876, The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879, and Anne by Woolson, 1882.


Frederic Sackrider Remington, 1861-1909.  Remington was a painter, illustrator, sculptor and writer.  Realizing the Old West was disappearing, he set out to paint the Native Americans, cowboys, militia men, U.S. Cavalry and settlers.  Some of his first drawings were sent to Collier's and Harper's Weekly. (1012,1011)* His illustrations also appeared in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, True Magazine, Everybody’s Magazine, The Century Magazine, St. Nicholas, and Outing. (7129,5174,3241,2895)* He eventually became a staff member for Harper's Weekly.  He was sent, as an artist-reporter, to Arizona to cover the war against Geronimo and later the Spanish-American War where he painted Roosevelt's Rough Riders.  Maintaining a relationship with Harper's, Remington established a successful career as both a painter and sculptor.  He remains most famous for both his paintings and bronzes of the West. 


Thomas Addison Richards, 1820-1900.  Richards was a painter and illustrator.  He work appeared in Homes of American Authors, 1853, Learning to Read, 1856, Appleton’s Illustrated Hand-Book of American Travel by Richards, 1857, and Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, 1864.


William Allen Rogers, 1854-1931.  He was an illustrator known for his political cartoons. (1731)* Rogers began his career in New York with the Daily Graphic.  Over the years he worked for Harper’s Weekly and did cartoons for Life, Puck, Century and St. Nicholas. (1738,1731,1802)* He ended his career with the Washington Post.


Samuel Worcester Rowse, 1822-1901.  Rowse was an engraver, lithographer and portrait artist.  His work appeared in Life Scenes, Sketched in Light and Shadow From the World Around Us by Durivage, 1853, The Spaewife by Peppergrass, 1853 and This That and the Other by Chandler, 1854.


Charles Marion Russell, 1864-1926, was a Westerner, historian, advocate of the Northern Plains Indians, cowboy, outdoorsman, writer, philosopher, environmentalist, conservationist, and noted artist.  As a self-taught artist, he created more than 2,000 paintings of cowboys, Native Americans, landscapes of the Western United States, and bronze sculptures.  He lived in and loved the West.  Known as "the cowboy artist", Russell was also a storyteller and author. (8078)* As an illustrator, he had six of his own illustrated books published.  His first was Studies of Western Life published in 1890.  Many leading authors, including Theodore Roosevelt, used his works.  He was commissioned to illustrate a special edition of Owen Wister’s The Virginian.  Russell’s illustrations appeared in magazines including The American, The Artist, Fine Arts Journal, Leslie’s Weekly, McClure’s, The Saturday Evening Post, World’s Work and others. (3273)*


Francis H. Schell, 1834-1909.  Schell started his career as an artist, illustrator, and lithographer in Philadelphia.  In 1861 he was hired by Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper as a “special artist” to record the Civil War.  Witnessing the battle of Antietam Creek, led Schell to capture the realities of battle.  In addition to drawing battle scenes and details of camp life, he was interested in capturing the images of “contrabands”, former slaves who dug trenches and did odd jobs for the army. (2145)* He became Leslie’s art director after the war until he formed a lithography partnership with Thomas Hogan that continued for 30 years. (2967,1420,1419,8341)* Schell also did illustrations for Century magazine, and his drawings were included in Beyond the Mississippi and Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. (2516)*


Frederick B. Schell, 1838–1905.  Frederick was born in Philadelphia.  He became a special artist for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper in 1862 and did drawings at Antietam.  In 1863, Frank Leslie assigned him to General Ulysses S. Grant’s army at Vicksburg. (2117)* When the Confederate General John C. Pemberton and his troops surrendered on July 4th, Schell captured the meeting of the two generals. (2112,2117,2139)* His works were also published in Century magazine and in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.  After the war he did illustrations for Picturesque Canada and for The Picturesque Atlas of Australia.  Schell served as art director for Harper & Brothers.


Christian Schussele, 1826-1879.  A professor at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, he painted historical scenes and portraits.  His illustrations and engravings appeared in Aunt Phillis’s Cabin, 1852, The Book of Poetry, 1853, The American Sportsman, 1855, Arctic Explorations, 1857 and Sketches of the Rise, Progress and Decline of Secession, 1862.


Julian Scott, 1846-1901.  At the age of 15 he became a drummer in the 3rd Vermont, which saw action in the Battle of Lee's Mills in the Civil War.  He saved the lives of 9 wounded men and was awarded the Medal of Honor, becoming the first individual soldier to be so honored in the Civil War.  Scott was wounded at the Battle of White Oak Swamp.  It was during his recuperation that he first began to work as an artist.  In 1864 he returned to the battlefields as an artist, documenting important Civil War battles. (1417)* Scott was chosen to accompany other artists westward with the 1890 census-takers to record the vanishing American Indians.  He did many portraits of the remaining chiefs and warriors. (4062,1035,1020,1019)*


Aaron Draper Shattuck, 1832-1928.  Shattuck was known as a landscape painter. (8050)* His illustrations appeared in Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, 1864, Festival of Song, 1866, A Lover’s Diary, 1868 and The Sunnyside Book, 1871.


William Henry Shelton, 1840-1932.  Shelton was an artist-illustrator in New York City.  He worked for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated, Harper’s Weekly, Century, and The New York Ledger.  During the Civil War, he served in a New York State regiment as an artilleryman.  He participated as an artillery commander in the Battle of the Wilderness, where he was badly wounded and taken prisoner by the Confederates.  His etchings and drawings were based on real experiences.  Shelton contributed many illustrations to leading periodicals such as Harper’s Weekly during the 1870’s and 1880’s.  W. H. Shelton exhibited at the Brooklyn Art Association, the Boston Art Club, the Pennsylvania Academy and at the Art Institute of Chicago. (8327)*


William Ludlow (Ludwell) Sheppard, 1833-1912.  A southern artist born in Richmond, Virginia, William Sheppard was a watercolorist, illustrator, teacher, and painter who first gained attention for designing tobacco labels.  He enlisted in the Civil War with the Richmond Howitzers in the Army of Northern Virginia, reaching the rank of engineering officer.  He devoted most of his spare time to drawing and painting his fellow soldiers.  This work led him to the field of illustration.  His works appeared in Harper’s Weekly, Frank Leslie’s Illustrated, Puck, and Appleton’s. (2475,2799,6159)* After the war he developed an interest in African American life. (6438)* Sheppard was an illustrator for Century’s Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. (8340,8336,8335,8329)* His illustrations also appeared in many books in the later 1800s.


Roswell Morse Shurtleff, 1838-1915.  His illustrations appeared in Beyond the Mississippi, 1869, The Innocents Abroad, 1869, Roughing It, 1872 (890)* and The Woman in Battle, 1876.


Alexander Simplot, 1837-1914.  Born in Dubuque, Iowa, he worked as a special artist for Harper’s Weekly for two years.  His drawing of volunteers boarding the steamer Alhambra in April, 1861 was the first Civil War related sketch published by Harper’s Weekly.  One of his most famous drawings was “The Battle of Corinth”. (1182)* Most of his Civil War sketches for Harper’s were done on the Mississippi and its tributaries. (1172,1462)* He was also well known for his Civil War paintings.  Simplot returned to Dubuque where he taught school for several years.  In 1899 he published a weekly series, “Story of the War, Pen and Pencil Reminiscences” in the Dubuque Sunday Times.


James David Smillie, 1835-1909.  He was an engraver, etcher and landscape painter.  His work appeared in Home Views by Clark, 1863, (8035,8030,8013,8012,8010)* Picturesque America, 1872, Golden Songs of Great Poets, 1877, The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879 and Longfellow Portfolio, 1881.


Jessie Wilcox Smith, 1863-1935.  She combined her love of art and children and became one of America's foremost illustrators. (535)* She illustrated stories and articles for magazines including Century, Collier's Weekly, Leslie's Weekly, Harper's, McClure's, Scribner’s, and the Ladies' Home Journal.  She did almost two hundred covers for Good Housekeeping.  Jessie Wilcox Smith illustrated many books including Heidi, Little Women and A Child's Garden of Verses. (456,487)* She also did advertisement illustrations including Ivory Soap for Procter and Gamble. (5112)*


Henry Louis Stephens, 1824-1882.  Stephens worked for Frank Leslie and then for Harper & Brothers. (4400)* He was known for his illustrations and caricatures.  His work also appeared in Vanity Fair, Mrs. Grundy and Punchinello.  His book illustrations included The Comic Natural History of the Human Race by Stephens, 1851, Pictorial Life and Adventures of Davy Crockett, 1852, The Cyclopedia of Wit and Humor, 1858 and Down the River, 1874.


Alice Barber Stephens, 1858-1932.  Her illustrations regularly appeared in Century, Cosmopolitan, Frank Leslie’s, Harper’s, Ladies’ Home Journal and Scribner’s. (6195,6879,879,2576)* She also illustrated books by many famous authors. (1071)*


David Hunter Strother, 1816-1888.  Born in Virginia (now West Virginia) he was one of the best known graphic artists in America by the mid 1800s.  He began his career doing wood engravings for books and periodicals including the art journal, Crayon.  In 1858 he wrote and illustrated his first article under the pen name “Porte Crayon” for Harper’s Monthly.  From 1859-1861 Strother wrote and illustrated many travelogues for Harper’s.  Early in 1861 Harper’s sent him south to cover the war.  As a Virginian, but sympathetic to the North, he was at first able to travel with the Southern forces.  Harper’s published his account of the Confederate raid on Harper’s Ferry and his sketch titled, “The Burning of the United States Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, 10 P.M., April 18, 1861.”   In 1861, he was commissioned as a topographer and staff officer in the Union Army.  He was assigned to several generals including his cousin, General David Hunter.  Strother’s detailed knowledge of the Shenandoah Valley enabled him to draw detailed maps that played a key role in guiding Union forces.  From 1866-1868, Harper’s Monthly published eleven installments of Porte Crayon’s “Personal Recollections of the War”.  His work also appeared in The Life of Captain John Smith by Simms, 1846, Swallow Barn by Kennedy, 1851 and Virginia Illustrated by Strother, 1857.


Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait, 1819-1905.  Tait was known for his sporting art.  Many of his works were lithographed by Currier & Ives.  His work can be found in Wild Sports in the South by Whitehead, 1860 and Home Views by Clark, 1863 (8054)*


James E. Taylor, 1839-1901.  Born in Cincinnati, Taylor was a well known painter and illustrator.  He enlisted in the Tenth New York Infantry (National Zouaves) in 1861.  While a soldier, he sent battlefield drawings to Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.  When he left the army in 1863, Leslie’s hired him as a “special artist”.  For the remainder of the war, he traveled with the Union Army in Virginia, West Virginia, South Carolina, and North Carolina.  After the war, Taylor traveled to the West with the Indian Peace Commission.  His drawings of the Medicine Lodge Council of the Peace Commission were published in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper in November 1867. (4064)*   His drawing “Branding Cattle on the Prairies in Texas”, published in June 1867 was the first illustration of the western cattle industry printed in the national press.  In 1883 he became a freelance illustrator. (2686)*


William H. Thwaites, Active 1854-1871.  He was an engraver, illustrator and landscape painter.  His work appeared in The Old Doctor, 1853, Uncle Sam’s Farm Fence by Milne, 1854, The Annals of San Francisco, 1855, Jack the Giant Killer, 1855, Robinson Crusoe by Defoe, 1855, Old Whitey’s Christmas Trot, 1857, Popular Fairy Tales for Little Folks, 1859 and The White Chief, 1865.


William D. T. Travis accompanied the Union army as a staff artist for Harper’s Weekly and The New York Illustrated News.  He is identified by Harper’s Weekly simply as Mr. Bill Travis.  In November, 1861 Harper’s Weekly published a half page engraving from a sketch done by Travis titled, "Two Slave-Hunters Expelled From The Camp of The Twenty-Second Illinois Volunteers At Birds Point, Missouri.”(6310)* A December, 1861 full page engraving is a series of three sketches and a map.  The main sketch is titled, "The Battle of Belmont--Charge of Colonel Dougherty, Twenty-Second Illinois Regiment, Upon The Rebel Batteries." It shows mounted officers leading the charge into the rebel camp.  The smaller sketches are titled, "The Mississippi River Near Columbus and Belmont, and The Retreat--the Tyler shelling the Rebel troops." It shows a line of steamboats with shells bursting.  The map is titled, "Mississippi River From Cairo To Chalk Bluff.” (7732)* After the war, Travis painted scenes of the Civil War from on-the-spot sketches and memories accumulated while accompanying the army.  A panorama entitled “The Army of the Cumberland” is in the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.


Lewis Towson Voigt.  Voigt was a portrait, miniature and fashion artist.  His works appeared in Harper’s Monthly (2626)*, The Illustrated News, 1853, The New York Journal, 1853-4, and The Illustrated American Biography, 1854. 


William Wade was an engraver, designer and draftsman.  Panorama of the Hudson River from New York to Albany, 1844 was illustrated and published by Wade.   His work also appeared in History of the City of New York, 1859 and A History of the City of Brooklyn, 1867-70.


William Walcutt, 1819-1882.  His illustrations appeared in Fairy Tales and Legends of Many Nations, 1849, Vala, 1851, and Camp Fires of the Red Men by Orton, 1855.


Henry A. Walke, 1808-1896.  Renowned artist and naval officer, Walke was a Union Naval hero during the Civil War.  He served at Forts Henry, Donelson, Pillow, Vicksburg and others.  During Grant’s campaign to control the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers he was commander of the timberclad Tyler in the Battle of Belmont. (1230)* His naval sketches appeared in Harper’s Weekly and other publications of the time.  He wrote and illustrated several naval books including his classic Naval Lithograph Portfolio.  Walke was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1870.


Samuel Wallin (Walling).  He was known for his portraits which appeared in Illustrated American Biography, 1853-55.  His work was also in Facts and Fancies for School-Day Reading by Sedgwick, 1848, American Missionary Memorial, 1853, Pen and Pencil, 1858, The American Revolution by Thacher, 1860, Folk Songs, 1861 and Rainbows for Children, 1868.


A. Coolidge Warren, 1819-1904.  An engraver and illustrator his work appeared in Beyond the Mississippi, 1869, Our Admiral’s Flag Abroad, 1869, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81, Around the World with General Grant, 1879, The Pacific Tourist, 1879 and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879.


A. W. Warren, d.1873.  Born in Coventry, New York, he was a Civil War “special artist” for Harper’s Weekly in 1864 and 1865.  The November 26, 1864 issue published two of his sketches, "Before Petersburg--Mounted Infantry," and "Before Petersburg--Reinforcements Going To The Front.” (8570,6380,8577)* He also sketched the ruins of Richmond.  It was Warren’s idea to form The New York Etching Club.  After the war he is known for his paintings of Latin America.


Alfred Rudolph Waud, 1828-1891.  Born in London, he immigrated to America in 1850.  In 1860, Waud became a staff artist for the New York Illustrated News.  In April 1861, the newspaper assigned him to cover the Army of the Potomac.  He joined Harper’s Weekly at the end of 1861.  Alfred Waud was present at every Army of the Potomac battle from the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861 to the Siege of Petersburg in 1865. (1565,1512)* He was present at the Battle of Gettysburg making the only eyewitness drawing of Confederate General Pickett’s charge. (8180)* At Appomattox, he was the only artist or photographer in the vicinity. He got there just in time to see General Lee’s departure after his surrender and the Confederates laying down their arms and battle flags.  Later, Alfred accompanied the Lincoln funeral train and depicted the burial of the president in Springfield, Illinois.  Harper’s Weekly acclaimed him the most important artist-correspondent of the Civil War.  Waud continued to be a prolific illustrator, doing numerous illustrations for Harper's Weekly and other prominent publications including The Riverside Magazine for Young People, Century magazine and Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.  His work was also in Beyond the Mississippi, 1869, A Life of Gen. Robert E. Lee by Cooke, 1871, Picturesque America, 1872-74, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81, and The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1879.  He died in 1891 in Marietta, Georgia, while touring battlefields of the South.


William Waud, 1839-1878.  English born and brother of Alfred, he worked for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated and covered assignments in the South including the inauguration of Jefferson Davis, the bombardment of Fort Sumter, and the New Orleans Expedition in the spring of 1862.  In 1864 Waud joined the staff of Harper's Weekly.  He worked along side his brother, Alfred during the Petersburg Campaign.  William covered Sherman’s March in the South and Lincoln’s funeral after the war. (1616,1204,6314)* His work also appeared in Beyond the Mississippi, 1869 and A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81.


Robert Walter Weir, 1803-1889.  Weir was a drawing instructor at West Point.  Among his students were Whistler, Lee, Grant and Sherman.  His illustrations appeared in The Deserted Bride, 1843 and Allegories and Tales by Adams, 1849.


George G. White, -1898.  He was an engraver and illustrator whose work appeared in The Underground Mail-Agent by Vidi, 1853, The American Sportsman by Lewis, 1855, The Tribute Book, 1865, Beyond the Mississippi, 1869, A Popular History of the United States, 1876-81 and Around the World with General Grant, 1879.


Elias James Whitney, 1827-?  An engraver and illustrator, his work appeared in Appleton’s Illustrated Hand-Book, 1857, The Morning Glory, 1860, Sacred Poems by Willis, 1860, The Glen Morris Stories, 1862, Bitter-Sweet by Holland, 1864 and Carter Quarterman by Baker, 1876. 


True W. Williams, 1839-1897.  Known as Mark Twain’s illustrator his work appeared in The Innocents Abroad by Twain, 1869, Roughing It by Twain, 1872 (890)* Unwritten History by Miller, 1874, Mark Twain’s Sketches, 1875 and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Twain, 1876.


Thomas Worth, 1834-1917.  An illustrator and caricaturist his work appeared in magazines and books including Matrimonial Brokerage in the Metropolis, 1859, Plutarch Restored, 1862, Smoked Glass, 1868 and The Old Curiosity Shop by Dickens, 1872.


*Note:  Numbers in parentheses correspond to the Product Numbers of engravings in the Dietrich’s Vault collection.  To view the engraving, enter the number (without parentheses) in the search box on the home page.



The Becker Collection, America’s Distinguished Artists

War Correspondents Memorial Arch, Antietam National Battlefield


Artists and Illustrators of the Old West 1850-1900. Robert Taft, Bonanza Books, NY, 1953.


Artists in Ohio, 1787-1900.  Mary Sayre Haverstock, et. al.  Kent State University Press, 1999.


A Bohemian Brigade, The Civil War Correspondents—Mostly Rough, Sometimes Ready.  James M. Perry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000.


The Civil War, An Illustrated History. Time Books, 2011.


The Civil War in Art, A Visual Odyssey.  Doranne Jacobson, Smithmark, 1991.


Civil War Sketch Book: Drawings from the Battlefront.  Harry L. Katz and Vincent Virga, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 2012.


A Dictionary of American Artists, Sculptors and Engravers, From the beginnings through the turn of the Twentieth Century. William Young, 1968.


Early American Book Illustrators and Wood Engravers 1670-1870, Vol. I and II. Sinclair Hamilton, Princeton University Press, 1968.


Illustrators of Children’s Books 1744-1945.  Compiled by Bertha E. Mahony, Louise Payson


Latimer, Beulah Folmsbee. The Horn Book Inc., Boston, 1947.


Katz, Harry, “Civil War Battlefield Art” National Geographic, May 2012.


Mantle Fieldings’s Dictionary of American Painter, Sculptors and Engravers. James F. Carr, 1965.


The New York Historical Society’s Dictionary of Artists In America 1564-1960. George C. Groce and David H. Wallace, Yale University Press, 1957.


Th: Nast, His Period and His Pictures. Albert Bigelow Paine, The Pyne Press, 1904.


The Timberclads In The Civil War: The Lexington, Conestoga and Tyler On The Western Waters.  Myron J. Smith. 2008.


Winslow Homer’s Magazine Engravings.  Philip C. Beam, Harper & Row, 1979.